Handmade Smooth Recycling Papermaking Research in Western Australia by Dr.Leslie.C. Westerlund

Science Research and Conferences and Books

Family Tree Research in Western Australia
Kangaroo release to the wild, farm, in Western Australia
BioGas Pulper
Fiji School Books
This Could be YOUR Project
Research help for Students
Spinifex Art Paper
Bouguereau Angel
Help Translate a Poem
Papermaking for Kigoowa Village in Uganda
Mundaring Epiphany
New Papermaking for Tanzania
Fiji Lepita
Art Papermaking
National Lifestylers Village Papermaking-Bridgewater
WA Guild of Papermakers
Fiji-Wainimakutu Village of Papermakers
How To Make Paper
Research: Fibre Options
Research for Kenya
Science Research and Conferences and Books
IOBB Conference
Writing Paper
Gift Sets
Paper Examples
Equipment Design

Dr Leslie. C. Westerlund has pioneered the research into value adding waste products like paper and cotton lint into highest quality hand made 150 gsm paper. With a smooth side for brilliant printing qualities.

CONFERENCES and PRESENTATIONS 1982-2015 ***** Technology Transfer and Papermaking Research. 3M Speech; Brian Hill Lecture Theatre, Murdoch, WA.2014 ***** "The Art of Science". The Tipping Point Conference: “Best Sustainable Appropriate Technology to help Artisans in Developing Countries”.May 9, 2014. To help create discussion of new ways of looking at art & science - helping advance research into papermaking, art, and using farmers waste straw for alternative papermaking small scale sustainable industries. ***** Report on Examples on Fijian Projects to help understand Models of Technology Transfer to help Developing Countries. 2013.WES. *****- Report on Models and Methodology of Technology Transfer to help Developing Countries. 2013. WES. *****- Report on Five Facets of Sustainable Technology Transfer to Help Craft Technologies in an Australian Lifestyle Village. 2012. WES. *****- Report on Models and Methodology of Technology Transfer to help Developing Countries. 2013, WES. *****- Report on a Technology Transfer Project to ‘Wainimakutu Village, Fiji; Comparing to an Australian Lifestyle Village.2013.WES. ***** “Report on the New 5 Facet Model of Appropriate Sustainable Best Available Technology Transfer to help Artisans” Leslie Westerlund: Westerlund Eco Services.October 2012 Based on a few decades of pioneering research into helping Artisans with the best available craft technology. Help transfer papermaking technology to Fiji and Artisans of the world. 206 pages. Lots of great references and pictures. ISBN: 1876141-646 *****- *****- Westerlund.L; Ho,G; Anda.M (2011)."An Innovative Cottage Industry Example Of Using Ground Water And Waste Water Recycling Several Times In The Production Of The Recycled Smooth High Quality Craft Paper". Waste Water Reuse: Abstract: IWM 2011 *****- Westerlund L; Ho G; Anda M, Wood D and Koshy K: (2009) Chapter 22. Case Study of Technology Transfer to a Fiji Rural Village Using an Improved ‘Sustainable Turnkey Approach’; pp. 245-252: in: Nair J, Furedy,C; Hoysala,C; Doelle,H (2009): Technologies and Management for Sustainable Biosystems: First International Conference, Murdoch University, W.Australia *****- “Champions are Needed to Improve Science and Technology Transfer to Help Developing Countries”.Westerlund, L.C; Ho,G; Anda.M (2009).. 19th Combined Biological Science Meeting (Conference). 28 Aug 2009. UWA. Perth. Australia. ***** Bembe: the Fijian Butterfly. Westerlund,L.,Qiokata.V.,Vatucicila.L. and Tukana.L (2008)., One of several books for children of Fiji. This one was translated back into Fijian, so the children can read a line of English and then a line of Fijian. *****- WA Inventors of the Year Nominations 2007/8 ***** Holistic Papermaking at: York Fayre April 2008 ***** Murdoch Uni Environmental Science Powerpoint and display of technology. 2007 ***** Conference: “Technology Transfer can be Sustainable and Eco-Friendly”. HERDSA Rekindled. Notre Dame University, Fremantle. W.Australia, 2006. *****- Fiji: Wainimakutu Village Papermaking Workshops in 2006/2007 *****- Papermaking and Recycling options for Research for Fiji. USP Engineering Dept Oct 2005 ****** Sustainable Development of the Australian Pulp and Paper Industry: Using Waste Agricultural Fibres.2002. Masters Project. UOW. ****** Pacific Science Conference: Sydney 1999; *****- Paper presented to 6th National Conference on Unemployment: 23-24 September 1999. Newcastle. NSW. Australia. Creating Employment with Science and Hand Made New Smooth- Papermaking Technology. *****- "Waste Fibre Options for Papermaking":Theme: Waste Treatment and Management: The 3rd Annual Aust. Environment. Engineering: Melb. Vic.Nov.1999; *****- Honours Science Project Conference in Sydney 1999; *****- "Environmental Education Principles of Paper Recycling".AAEE. W.A. Environmental Education. WA State Conf.1998 *****- "Papermaking as Part of Permaculture" at the International Permaculture Conference at Murdoch University. Jan 1998 *****- Demonstration and Discussion of Technologies at the ETC. UNEP-IETC: Report 6..1998. Advanced Smooth Technology Papemaking.....Workshop for Training in Adopting, Applying and Operating Environmentally Sound Technologies (EST's). Murdoch University, Perth, W.Australia., *****- For Wedding Invitations at: Wedding Expo Perth 1980's&90's;- ***** For Smooth Papermaking Technology at: WA Expo's 1980's.- ***** "Papermaking Production and Saving Water in Cottage Industry"; Inaugural South West Water Resources Conf. Bunbury.W.A.Jan. 1989; ***** "Developing a Country Based Small P/M Business" Advance Australia Fair. W.A.. Perth.W.A.May 1982


2008 Conference IOBB July Perth. WAustralia.
"New Sustainable Turnkey Approach to Technology Transfer (STA)."


Historically a number of approaches to technology transfer to ‘less developed countries’ (LDCs) have been trialled and found to be limited.  A classic example is the ‘turnkey approach’ which appears to answer an LDC’s hope to gain better technologies and skills and yet has several flaws.  It is not designed for local industry, conditions and production systems;  it is too expensive;  too technical;  too prone to breakdowns;  too tied up with intellectual property and patent issues;  too remote for technical support;  and finally not sensitive to local culture and heritage.  Thus after a short time when something goes wrong with the equipment, it is not serviced or fixed properly and production stops and the local village goes back to their old ways of doing things. 

A modified appropriate ‘sustainable turnkey approach’ (STA) was developed, trialled and used to introduce new cottage papermaking technology to an existing papermaking village in a remote highland part of Fiji, a LDC. This part of the new research explored making a high technology piece of equipment in Suva, the nearest city to the Wainimakutu Village. The intellectual property was given under ‘creative commons’ by the inventor.  The STA has empowered a local engineering business and the engineering department of the local university to be able to understand and transfer  the ‘hardware’ (equipment) and ‘software’ (skills) of these technologies and actually make the machines.  The business/university project empowered them to redesign it, to improve it, to trial it, to test it, and then network with a village to complete the ideals of using the ‘best available technology’ that is also sustainable, eco-friendly, appropriate and financially viable. The STA has proved a far superior process.  When something goes wrong with the machine it can be adjusted, fixed or modified to work: first in the village;  second, with local industry help; third with local university help; and fourth with contacting the inventor for advice and networking with all stakeholders.  The village employment project does not stop and wait in limbo for weeks/months/years until expensive international experts can diagnose the faults, import the parts, manufacture components and fix the problems to get the machine working.

The action research process, with its emphasis on inductively produced local knowledge, informs and supports this STA to pioneer better ways of technology transfer to assist developing countries. This was evaluated by a new objective survey using a new points system of 100 points to imply a 100% transfer of skills per phase to empower many stakeholders with the knowledge and wisdom of making papermaking equipment and processes. The use of ‘creative commons’ was trialled and proved successful to transfer the ‘best available intellectual property’ to a LDC. The technology transfer was successful using appropriate technologies, local skills and labour, being economically viable, sustainable using waste paper and local fibres, and finally complementary to cultural values of the native Fijian papermaking village.


Five Phases of Sustainable Technology Transfer to Developing Countries.
Case study of Technology Transfer to Fiji.

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